Hi Guys, in this article you will get to know what electric car is made off and how it works. I would suggest opting for electric cars if you are thinking to buy a car, by doing your bit to save the environment. This is pure electric energy used for powering this car, instead of an internal combustion engine(like in traditional cars) without any harmful or any kind of emissions as it doesn’t have any exhaust.
The whole explanation is based on Tesla cars including working and components.
What are the Parts of an electric car?
The main components of an electric vehicle are :-
- Electric Traction Motor
- Thermal System (For Cooling Purpose)
- Charge Port
- Onboard Charger
- Traction Battery Pack
- AC/DC Converter
- Power Electronic Convertor
- Transmission Or Drive Terrain
The battery of an electric car can be charged through the use of ordinary grid electricity at a specialized power station. But aside from the conventional lithium-ion battery technologies, other major battery technologies can be used for electric cars.
- Lithium-Ion Batteries: This battery technology gives extra performance and range. However, it also carries the highest price tag. Lithium-ion batteries are lighter than Lead-acid and Nickel-metal. These are also the batteries used in digital cameras and smartphones.
- Lead Acid Batteries: This battery technology is the most popular. It is also the cheapest among the battery technologies. What’s good about it is it’s 97% recyclable.
- Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries: This battery technology provides a higher output and better performance but it costs much more than lead-acid batteries.
Electric Traction Motor :-
The most commonly used electric traction motor in electric vehicles is an Induction motor. Using power from the traction battery pack, this motor drives the vehicle’s wheels. Some vehicles use motor generators that perform both the drive and regeneration functions.
An induction motor (also known as an asynchronous motor) is a commonly used AC electric motor. In an induction motor, the electric current in the rotor needed to produce torque is obtained via electromagnetic induction from the rotating magnetic field of the stator winding. The rotor of an induction motor can be a squirrel cage rotor or wound type rotor.
Induction motors are referred to as ‘asynchronous motors’ because they operate at a speed less than their synchronous speed.
Thermal System :-
This system maintains a proper operating temperature range of the engine, electric motor, power electronics, and other components. This component is generally radiator.
Charge Port :-
The charge port allows the vehicle to connect to an external power supply to charge the traction battery pack. We can see nowadays some charging stations are been assembled at the petrol bunks. These are used to recharge the vehicle just as, you charge your phone at home in the same way.
On-Board Charger :-
Takes the incoming AC electricity supplied via the charge port and converts it to DC power for charging the traction battery. It monitors battery characteristics such as voltage, current, temperature, and state of charge while charging the pack.
Traction Battery Pack :-
It stores the electricity that is used by the electric traction motor. Tesla vehicles use small lithium-ion cylindrical battery cells (Tesla uses 7000 battery cells in the pack) like that of a battery that we use for TV remotes in large numbers as a big pack under the base platform of the car. It stores the power in DC then this DC is converted into AC. That is supplied to the motor.
AC/DC Converter Or Inverter :-
An inverter is a device that converts DC power to the AC power used in an electric vehicle motor. The inverter can change the speed at which the motor rotates by adjusting the frequency of the alternating current. It can also increase or decrease the power or torque of the motor by adjusting the amplitude of the signal.
Power Electronic Convertor Or Controller :-
The controller is like the brain of a vehicle, managing all of its parameters. It controls the rate of charge using information from the battery. It also translates pressure on the accelerator pedal to adjust speed in the motor inverter.
This unit manages the flow of electrical energy delivered by the traction battery, controlling the speed of the electric traction motor and the torque it produces.
Transmission Or Drive Terrain :-
It converts electrical energy drawn from the batteries to mechanical power to move the vehicle. This is a more efficient technology when compared to the combustion engines that you can find on traditional cars.
Working of an electric car :-
In the current world, electric cars are seeping into the modern automobile world at a rapid pace. This is because of the potential that electric cars have to overtake I.C. Engines. This is because they are more efficient with fewer maintenance costs and have higher torque comparatively. These vehicles are noise-free, pollution-free and have high performance. It is estimated that by 2025 electric cars will rule the market.
This change has to come as global warming is on the rise and we can see icebergs melting because of it. There will be an increase in the sea level which will leave less land for us to survive.
These cars have superior performance. we will see how it has analyzed the technology and reached the performance. The powerhouse of this car lies in the induction motor which was invented by Nikola Tesla.
When you place the vehicle in gear and press on the accelerator pedal these things happen:
- Power is converted from the DC battery to AC for the electric motor.
- The accelerator pedal sends a signal to the controller which adjusts the vehicle’s speed by changing the frequency of the AC power from the inverter to the motor.
- The motor connects and turns the wheels through the gears.
- When the brakes are pressed or the car is decelerating, the motor becomes an alternator and produces power, which is sent back to the battery.
This car has a lower rigid flat platform, a front trunk that makes it safe during the accidents.
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In case, you have not checked my previous blog here is the link :- http://educationblogs.in/drive-a-four-wheelers-lessons/